President Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus is seeking a sixth term in office in an election he is both tipped to win but which is also likely to be his toughest challenge yet.
He won previous elections by a landslide but the votes were condemned by election observers.
This time though he has a prominent rival in a 37-year-old who is running in place of her jailed husband.
Belarus has also seen large opposition protests and a row with Russia.
President Lukashenko, 65, and sometimes referred to as Europe’s last dictator, was first elected in 1994.
In the last vote in 2015, he was declared winner with 83.5% of the vote. There were no serious challengers and election observers reported problems in the counting and tabulation of votes.
So will this vote be different?
Probably not. President Lukashenko is widely expected to win again. But the vote is being closely watched amid growing signs of frustration at his leadership.
The campaign has seen the rise of opposition candidate Svetlana Tikhanovskaya, a former teacher who became a stay-at-home mother until thrust into the political spotlight.
Her husband was arrested and blocked from registering for the vote so she stepped in to take his place.
“People are waking up, rediscovering their self-respect,” she told AFP in a recent interview. But she also said she expected the election to be rigged.
President Lukashenko has dismissed Ms Tikhanovskaya as a “poor little girl”, manipulated by foreign “puppet masters”.
Tens of thousands defied an escalating crackdown on the opposition last month to attend a protest in the capital Minsk last month, the largest such demonstration in a decade.
Hundreds of protesters have been held since May, human rights activists say.
On the eve of the vote Ms Tikhanovskaya’s team saidher campaign manager had been arrested and would not be released until Monday.
Is anyone else running?
There are three other candidates:
- Anna Kanopatskaya, a former MPwho won a rare seat for t